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Pamela Clark

Pamela Clark, CRNI, is an infusion nurse with the Houston Methodist Sugar Land Hospital.  She has more than 35 years of experience in infusion therapy and infusion education with both licensed nurses and patients. Her experience spans multiple infusion settings including: acute care, long-term care, home infusion, and ambulatory infusion care. She also has experience in oncology and oncology research.

Read Pamela Clark's Full Bio...
Class Accreditation
Provider approved by the Kentucky Board of Nursing, Provider # 7-0087-12-19-273, \n\n course provides 25.00 contact hours.
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Kentucky IV Therapy Education

Contact Hours: 25
Cost: $150.00
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Kentucky IV Therapy Education
The Kentucky Nurse I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been designed to fulfill the Kentucky Board of Nursing’s education components required for the Licensed Practical Nurse to practice infusion therapy.  The Kentucky Board of Nursing has delineated very specific content to be included in the LPN infusion curriculum and specifics may be viewed in the Kentucky BON 201 KAR (Kentucky Administrative Regulations) 20:490. Licensed practical nurse intravenous therapy scope of practice. Many State Boards of Nursing require that the LPN, and the RN in some cases, complete additional infusion therapy education after licensure. According to the Kentucky Board, “this education and training shall be obtained through: a prelicensure program of nursing for individuals admitted to the program after September 15, 2004 or an institution, practice setting, or continuing education provider that has in place a written instructional program and competency validation mechanism that includes a process for evaluation and documentation of an LPN’s demonstration of completion of the instructional program and competency validation.”

This comprehensive 25 hour online education program meets the Kentucky Board of Nursing I.V. Therapy  education requirements for LPN’s, as well as provides an excellent refresher course for the Registered Nurse who has not had recent experience and/or is not familiar with the current infusion therapy standards of care, which have changed significantly over the years. It is also a great resource as a primer for new RN’s. Throughout the course, information will be provided as to those procedures that are, and are not, within the LPN’s scope of practice according to 210 KAR 20:490.

This curriculum provides the didactic portion of the required education. Competency requirements are obtained and maintained through the nurse’s employer, facility or institution. This 25 hour online continuing education provides a low stress, convenient method of obtaining quality infusion education incorporating various educational techniques designed for the adult learner. The program is comprised of the 25 hour didactic portion completed on your time schedule. Upon successful completion of the course exam, with a score of 80% or greater, the student may instantly print his/her “Certificate of Completion” for the didactic portion of the course. Additionally, the Kentucky Board of Nursing requires skills validation prior to the LPN’s participation in providing infusion services. Within the course content, Pedagogy Inc. provides a complete set of skills competency checklists to be completed under the direct supervision of a Kentucky licensed RN, APRN, physician, or dentist. 


Objectives for Section 1: Peripheral IV Therapy
Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
List specific measures that will protect against malpractice
Identify infusion related complications, causes and appropriate treatment
Demonstrate the correct calculation of an IV flow rate
Identify methods of infection control related to IV therapy
List the components of accurate and complete documentation of IV procedures and complications
Demonstrate IV and Infusion related procedures  
Objectives for Section 2: Central Venous Access Devices (CVAD)
Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
Describe protective measures to guard against malpractice suits.
List 3 reasons for use and advantages of central lines.
List 4 veins used for central venous device placement and proper tip position.
Identify the various types of central lines.
Identify symptoms and prevention of complications.
Describe assessment criteria and documentation required for patients with central venous catheters.
Objectives for Section 3: Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections (CRBSI)
Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
Identify at least three negative effects of central line related bloodstream infections.
Identify at least two methods by which central lines become colonized.
Identify at least three strategies to reduce the risk of CRBSI at the time of catheter insertion.
Recognize the proper time intervals and procedures for dressing change, injection port change, and site    observation.
State the recommended methods for obtaining blood cultures for CRBSI diagnosis.
State the recommended methods for treating CRBSI. 
Objectives for Section 4: Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
Identify at least three medical conditions that indicate the use of TPN
Identify at least three components of TPN
Demonstrate understanding of TPN administration by recognizing the steps involved in TPN preparation and infusion
Recognize at least two potential complications of TPN
State at least four TPN monitoring measurements
Objectives for Section 5: Transfusion Therapies
Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
Explain the blood grouping systems and their importance in transfusion therapy.
List available blood components and indications for each.
Describe the activities required in preparation for a transfusion.
Identify equipment used to administer a transfusion and it’s proper usage.
Describe the nursing management of a blood component infusion.
Describe signs and symptoms of transfusion reactions, and appropriate interventions for each.
Explain appropriate patient education related to transfusion therapy.
Identify the required documentation for a blood transfusion.
Objectives for Section 6: IV Push Medications
Upon completion of this course, the participant should be able to:  
Explain the difference between IV push medication administration and IV infusion medication administration 
Recognize potential negative effects of administering IV push medications incorrectly 
Demonstrate the proper procedures involved in the preparation and administration of IV push medications
Objectives for Section 7: Antibiotics
Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to: Identify at least two actions that have increased the incidence of antibiotic  resistance.
Describe the use of various intravenous antibiotic admixture containers and delivery systems.


Section One: Peripheral IV Therapy

This section of the Kentucky Nurse I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide basic conceptual and operational knowledge to healthcare clinicians who have had limited exposure to infusion therapy principals and practice.  As the science of infusion therapy advances and technology expands, it is imperative that all healthcare clinicians and nurses practicing infusion therapy remain current in their knowledge of infusion therapies, principles, techniques, equipment and the latest in infusion evidence based practices. 

Chapter 1: Legal Issues
Regulatory Agencies and Governing Bodies 
Components of a Complete Physicians Order 
Legal Terms and Applications in Nursing
Protective Measures for Guarding against Malpractice Lawsuits
Chapter 2: Anatomy and Physiology
The Vascular System: Veins, Arteries and Bone Marrow 
The Three Layers of the Vessels and Their Function 
Differentiating Arteries from Veins
Veins used in Peripheral Intravenous Therapy for Pediatrics and Adults
Skin: Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 3:  Psychological Needs of the IV Patient
Age Specific Needs of Children
Elderly Patient Needs 
Cultural Aspects
Patients with Sensory Deficits 
Methods of Reducing Patient Anxiety 
Patient Teaching/Education
Chapter 4: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Water: The Primary Fluid of the Body
Hypovolemia—Dehydration: Assessment, Causes, Treatments 
Hypervolemia—Fluid Overload: Assessment, Causes, Treatments 
Fluid Compartments
Electrolyte Imbalances: Assessment, Causes, Treatments
Chapter 5: pH, Osmolality and Incompatibilities of Solutions and Medications
pH of Intravenous Solutions and Medications
Tonicity: Isotonic solutions, Hypotonic solutions and Hypertonic Solutions Incompatibilities
Chapter 6: Fluid Regulation
Methods of Fluid Regulation
Patient Considerations in Fluid Regulation
External Factors that Affect the Rate of Flow 
Calculation of IV flow rates
Chapter 7: Infection Prevention and Safety Compliance
Hand Hygiene
Sharps Management
Medical Waste Disposal
Durable Medical Equipment Disinfection
Standard Precautions
Transmission-Based Precautions
Chapter 8: Vascular Visualization
Trans-illuminator Technology
Near Infrared Technology
Chapter 9: Site Selection and Device Placement
Criteria For Peripheral Devices
3 Types Of Peripheral Access And Criteria For Placement
Special Considerations Of The Specific Age Groups
General Considerations Of Short Peripheral Access 
Veins To Avoid
Chapter 10:  Vascular Access Device Management
Needleless Connectors
Add-on Devices
VAD Stabilization
Joint Stabilization
Site Protection
Flushing and Locking
Assessment, Care, and Dressing Changes
Administration Set Changes
Chapter 11: Procedures Guides and Videos
Pre-insertion Procedures
Peripheral IV Insertion
Primary and Secondary Administration set-up
IV Push Administration
Catheter Discontinuation
Chapter 12: Assessment and Documentation
Catheter Insertion Documentation 
Catheter Removal Documentation
Assessment, Monitoring and Documentation by Therapy

Section 2: Central Venous Access Devices

This section of the Kentucky Nurse I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge to the licensed nurse responsible for the care of patients with central venous access devices. Ever changing technologies and the evolution of the licensed nurse’s role in the management of central lines requires up to date knowledge of changes in techniques, equipment and devices in use today. This course contains current practices for best patient outcomes and provides 5.0 contact hours of continuing education.
Chapter 13: Central Line Review
Definition of a Central Line
Reasons for use of a central line
Advantages of a central line
Overview of Central Venous Access Devices
Non‐valved and valved catheters
Non‐tunneled catheters
Tunneled catheters
Implanted ports
PICC or Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter
Chapter 14: Anatomy
Veins used for placement of central venous access devices
Catheter tip placement
Chapter 15: Assessment and Preparations for Central Venous Catheterization
Considerations for selection of the device
Preparations for central venous catheterization
Chapter 16: Vascular Access Device Management
Needleless Connectors
Add-On Devices
CVAD Stabilization
Site Protection
Flushing and Locking
Assessment, Care, and Dressing Changes
Administration Set Changes
Blood Sampling from a CVAD
Chapter 17: Procedure Guides and Videos
Central venous catheter dressing change
Needleless access device change
Central venous catheter flushing
Blood Sampling from a CVAD
Chapter 18: Complications
Catheter related complications
Systemic complications
Insertion related complications
Chapter 19: Discontinuation of Therapy
Removal of devices
Central venous access device removal procedure
Chapter 20: Assessment and Documentation and Patient Education
Documentation of insertions, removal, infiltration or extravasations
Assessment, monitoring, documentation by type of therapy

Section 3: Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections (CRBSI)
This section of the Kentucky Nurse I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide education to licensed clinicians regarding the national efforts in effect to reduce the number of central venous access device related blood stream infections. The Joint Commission has addressed this issue in its 2010 National Patient Safety Goals by requiring education of all medical personnel who are involved in managing central lines, both in hospitals and long term care facilities. This education is expected to be completed on hire, annually thereafter, and when involvement in these procedures is added to an individual's job responsibilities.
Chapter 21: Scope of Problem
Morbidity / Mortality
Chapter 22: Catheter Insertion
Site Selection
Sterile Technique
Antimicrobial Impregnated Catheters 
Chapter 23: Catheter Site Maintenance
Needleless Connector
Chapter 24: Medication Administration
Administration Set
Chapter 25: Diagnosis and Treatment
Clinical Findings

Section 4: Total Parenteral Nutrition in the Adult Patient
This section of the Kentucky Nurse I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge to nurses and other healthcare providers interested in the provision of parenteral nutrition therapy. The understanding and use of TPN has evolved since its entry into mainstream healthcare several decades ago. 

Chapter 26: Indications for Parenteral Nutrition
Altered Absorption Capacity
GI Disorders Requiring Complete Bowel Rest
Intractable Vomiting or Diarrhea
Hypermetabolic States
Anorexia Nervosa
Chapter 27: Goals
Maintenance of Normal Body Weight and Protein Status
Restoration of Normal Body Weight and Protein Status
Maintenance or Restoration of Normal Micronutritional Status
Chapter 28: Normal Nutritional Requirements
Trace elements
Chapter 29: Nutritional Assessment
Chapter 30: Composition of Parenteral Nutrition
Amino Acids
Trace Elements
Other Additives
Chapter 31: Administration
Central Venous Access Devices
Electronic Infusion Devices
TPN and Lipids
Preparing the TPN for Infusion
Initiating the Infusion
Chapter 32: Complications
Metabolic Complications
Vascular Access Device-Related Complications
Chapter 33: Monitoring and Documentation
Vital Signs
Intake and Output
Laboratory Values
TPN Administration
IV Catheter Care
Section 5: Transfusion Therapy

This section of the Kentucky Nurse I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide clinicians caring for the adult patient receiving transfusion therapy. There are various blood components infused for very specific purposes, and each component requires knowledge related to that specific product. This specialized type of therapy requires advanced clinical knowledge beyond that required for the provision of general infusion therapy. Therefore, education related specifically to the administration of blood products is crucial to the safe and effective use of these components. This course will provide information necessary for administering these life saving infusions.
Chapter 34: Introduction to Transfusion Therapy
Blood Components
ABO Blood Group System
Rh Blood Group System
Other Blood Group Antigens
HLA System
Chapter 35: Whole Blood
Chapter 36: Packed Red Blood Cells
Donation and Testing
Red Blood Cell Subsets
Chapter 37: Platelets
Donation and Testing
Platelet Subsets
Chapter 38: Plasma
Donation and Testing
Chapter 39: Granulocytes
Donation and Testing
Chapter 40: Clotting Factors
Factor Concentrates
Chapter 41: Pre-transfusion Activities
Licensed Independent Prescriber Order
Patient Consent
Type and Crossmatch
Vascular Access
Baseline Vital Signs
Chapter 42: Transfusion Administration
Component Transport and Storage
Patient Education
Chapter 43: Complications
Immune Complications
Hemolytic Reactions
Non-Hemolytic Reactions
Non-immune Complications
Infectious Complications
Transfusion Associated Fluid Overload (TACO)
Complications of Massive Transfusion

Section 6: I.V. Push Medications

This section of the Kentucky I.V. Therapy curriculum has been written to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge to the licensed clinician interested in the provision of intravenous medication by the IV push route. There are a number of drugs that may or must be administered by this method. For both the RN and LPN/LVN involved in administering drugs by this route, this course contains current practices for best patient outcomes.
Chapter 44: Introduction to IV Push Medications 
Chapter 45: IV Push Drugs 
Chapter 46: IV Push Medication Administration 
Chapter 47: Assessment, Education, and Documentation 
Patient education

Section 7: IV Antibiotics
This section of the course has been designed for nurses administering and/or caring for the patient receiving intravenous antibiotics. I.V. antibiotics have been administered for nearly a century but bacterial resistance has forced an ever-increasing arsenal of drugs. In this often- changing landscape, the nurse needs a working knowledge and competency to infuse these medications in all the various administration systems in use today. Antimicrobial stewardship is discussed and reviewed.

Chapter 48: Antibiotics
Antibiotic Resistance
Intravenous antibiotic administration systems
Clostridium Difficile

Chapter 49: Antibiotic Stewardship
New antibiotic initiative
Phage therapy

Chapter 50: Resources and Skills Checklist
Skill Competency Checklists:
Peripheral IV Insertion
Medication Administration
Large Volume Electronic Infusion Device Peripheral IV Catheter Insertion
IV Push
Accessing a Port
Administration of Infusate via an Ambulatory Infusion Pump
Blood specimen collection from a CVAD
Deaccessing an Implanted Port
IV Push
Large Volume Electronic Infusion Device
Medication Administration
Midline or Central Line Dressing Change
Needleless Connector Device Change



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