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Pamela Clark

Pamela Clark, CRNI, is an infusion nurse with the Houston Methodist Sugar Land Hospital.  She has more than 35 years of experience in infusion therapy and infusion education with both licensed nurses and patients. Her experience spans multiple infusion settings including: acute care, long-term care, home infusion, and ambulatory infusion care. She also has experience in oncology and oncology research.


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Class Accreditation
Provider approved by the Kentucky Board of Nursing, Provider #: 7-0087-12-19-273, course provides 25.00 contact hours.
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Kentucky IV Therapy Education

Contact Hours: 25
Cost: $150.00
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Kentucky IV Therapy Education
The Kentucky Nurse IV Therapy Education curriculum has been designed to fulfill the Kentucky Board of Nursing’s education components required for the Licensed Practical Nurse to practice infusion therapy.  The Kentucky Board of Nursing has delineated very specific content to be included in the LPN infusion curriculum and specifics may be viewed in the Kentucky BON 201 KAR (Kentucky Administrative Regulations) 20:490. Licensed practical nurse intravenous therapy scope of practice. Many State Boards of Nursing require that the LPN, and the RN in some cases, complete additional infusion therapy education after licensure. According to the Kentucky Board, “this education and training shall be obtained through: a prelicensure program of nursing for individuals admitted to the program after September 15, 2004 or an institution, practice setting, or continuing education provider that has in place a written instructional program and competency validation mechanism that includes a process for evaluation and documentation of an LPN’s demonstration of completion of the instructional program and competency validation.”

This comprehensive 25 hour online education program meets the Kentucky Board of Nursing IV Therapy  education requirements for LPN’s, as well as provides an excellent refresher course for the Registered Nurse who has not had recent experience and/or is not familiar with the current infusion therapy standards of care, which have changed significantly over the years. It is also a great resource as a primer for new RN’s. Throughout the course, information will be provided as to those procedures that are, and are not, within the LPN’s scope of practice according to 210 KAR 20:490.

This curriculum provides the didactic portion of the required education. Competency requirements are obtained and maintained through the nurse’s employer, facility or institution. This 25 hour online continuing education provides a low stress, convenient method of obtaining quality infusion education incorporating various educational techniques designed for the adult learner. The program is comprised of the 25 hour didactic portion completed on your time schedule. Upon successful completion of the course exam, with a score of 80% or greater, the student may instantly print his/her “Certificate of Completion” for the didactic portion of the course. Additionally, the Kentucky Board of Nursing requires skills validation prior to the LPN’s participation in providing infusion services. Within the course content, Pedagogy Inc. provides a complete set of skills competency checklists to be completed under the direct supervision of a Kentucky licensed RN, APRN, physician, or dentist. 



Objectives


Objectives for Section 1: Peripheral IV Therapy

Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
  1. List specific measures that will protect against malpractice.
  2. Identify infusion related complications, causes and appropriate treatment.
  3. Demonstrate the correct calculation of an IV flow rate.
  4. Identify methods of infection control related to IV therapy.
  5. List the components of accurate and complete documentation of IV procedures and complications.
  6. Demonstrate IV and Infusion related procedures.
Objectives for Section 2: Central Venous Access Devices (CVAD)

Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
  1. Describe protective measures to guard against malpractice suits.
  2. List 3 reasons for use and advantages of central lines.
  3. List 4 veins used for central venous device placement and proper tip position.
  4. Identify the various types of central lines.
  5. Identify symptoms and prevention of complications.
  6. Describe assessment criteria and documentation required for patients with central venous catheters.
Objectives for Section 3: Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections (CRBSI)

Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
  1. Identify at least three negative effects of central line related bloodstream infections.
  2. Identify at least two methods by which central lines become colonized.
  3. Identify at least three strategies to reduce the risk of CRBSI at the time of catheter insertion.
  4. Recognize the proper time intervals and procedures for dressing change, injection port change, and site observation.
  5. State the recommended methods for obtaining blood cultures for CRBSI diagnosis.
  6. State the recommended methods for treating CRBSI. 
Objectives for Section 4: Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)

Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
  1. Identify at least three medical conditions that indicate the use of TPN.
  2. Identify at least three components of TPN.
  3. Demonstrate understanding of TPN administration by recognizing the steps involved in TPN preparation and infusion.
  4. Recognize at least two potential complications of TPN.
  5. State at least four TPN monitoring measurements.
Objectives for Section 5: Transfusion Therapies

Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to:
  1. Explain the blood grouping systems and their importance in transfusion therapy.
  2. List available blood components and indications for each.
  3. Describe the activities required in preparation for a transfusion.
  4. Identify equipment used to administer a transfusion and it’s proper usage.
  5. Describe the nursing management of a blood component infusion.
  6. Describe signs and symptoms of transfusion reactions, and appropriate interventions for each.
  7. Explain appropriate patient education related to transfusion therapy.
  8. Identify the required documentation for a blood transfusion.
Objectives for Section 6: IV Push Medications

Upon completion of this course, the participant should be able to:  
  1. Explain the difference between IV push medication administration and IV infusion medication administration. 
  2. Recognize potential negative effects of administering IV push medications incorrectly.
  3. Demonstrate the proper procedures involved in the preparation and administration of IV push medications.
Objectives for Section 7: Antibiotics

Upon completion of this curriculum, the nurse will be able to: Identify at least two actions that have increased the incidence of antibiotic  resistance.
  1. Describe the use of various intravenous antibiotic admixture containers and delivery systems.

Curriculum


Section One: Peripheral IV Therapy

This section of the Kentucky Nurse IV Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide basic conceptual and operational knowledge to healthcare clinicians who have had limited exposure to infusion therapy principals and practice.  As the science of infusion therapy advances and technology expands, it is imperative that all healthcare clinicians and nurses practicing infusion therapy remain current in their knowledge of infusion therapies, principles, techniques, equipment and the latest in infusion evidence based practices. 

Chapter 1: Legal Issues

  • Regulatory Agencies and Governing Bodies 
  • Components of a Complete Physicians Order 
  • Legal Terms and Applications in Nursing
  • Protective Measures for Guarding against Malpractice Lawsuits

Chapter 2: Anatomy and Physiology

  • The Vascular System: Veins, Arteries and Bone Marrow 
  • The Three Layers of the Vessels and Their Function 
  • Differentiating Arteries from Veins
  • Veins used in Peripheral Intravenous Therapy for Pediatrics and Adults
  • Intraosseous
  • Skin: Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 3:  Psychological Needs of the IV Patient

  • Age Specific Needs of Children
  • Elderly Patient Needs 
  • Cultural Aspects
  • Patients with Sensory Deficits 
  • Methods of Reducing Patient Anxiety 
  • Patient Teaching/Education

Chapter 4: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

  • Water: The Primary Fluid of the Body
  • Hypovolemia—Dehydration: Assessment, Causes, Treatments 
  • Hypervolemia—Fluid Overload: Assessment, Causes, Treatments 
  • Fluid Compartments
  • Electrolyte Imbalances: Assessment, Causes, Treatments

Chapter 5: pH, Osmolality and Incompatibilities of Solutions and Medications

  • pH of Intravenous Solutions and Medications
  • Tonicity: Isotonic solutions, Hypotonic solutions and Hypertonic Solutions Incompatibilities

Chapter 6: Fluid Regulation

  • Methods of Fluid Regulation
  • Patient Considerations in Fluid Regulation
  • External Factors that Affect the Rate of Flow 
  • Calculation of IV flow rates

Chapter 7: Infection Prevention and Safety Compliance

  • Hand Hygiene
  • Sharps Management
  • Medical Waste Disposal
  • Durable Medical Equipment Disinfection
  • Standard Precautions
  • Transmission-Based Precautions

Chapter 8: Vascular Visualization

  • Trans-illuminator Technology
  • Near Infrared Technology
  • Ultrasound

Chapter 9: Site Selection and Device Placement

  • Criteria For Peripheral Devices
  • 3 Types Of Peripheral Access And Criteria For Placement
  • Special Considerations Of The Specific Age Groups
  • General Considerations Of Short Peripheral Access 
  • Veins To Avoid

Chapter 10:  Vascular Access Device Management

  • Needleless Connectors
  • Filtration
  • Add-on Devices
  • VAD Stabilization
  • Joint Stabilization
  • Site Protection
  • Flushing and Locking
  • Assessment, Care, and Dressing Changes
  • Administration Set Changes

Chapter 11: Procedures Guides and Videos

  • Pre-insertion Procedures
  • Peripheral IV Insertion
  • Primary and Secondary Administration set-up
  • IV Push Administration
  • Catheter Discontinuation

Chapter 12: Assessment and Documentation

  • Catheter Insertion Documentation 
  • Catheter Removal Documentation
  • Assessment, Monitoring and Documentation by Therapy

Section 2: Central Venous Access Devices

This section of the Kentucky Nurse IV Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge to the licensed nurse responsible for the care of patients with central venous access devices. Ever changing technologies and the evolution of the licensed nurse’s role in the management of central lines requires up to date knowledge of changes in techniques, equipment and devices in use today. This course contains current practices for best patient outcomes and provides 5.0 contact hours of continuing education.

Chapter 13: Central Line Review

  • Definition of a Central Line
  • Reasons for use of a central line
  • Advantages of a central line
  • Overview of Central Venous Access Devices
  • Lumens
  • Non‐valved and valved catheters
  • Non‐tunneled catheters
  • Tunneled catheters
  • Implanted ports
  • PICC or Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter

Chapter 14: Anatomy

  • Veins used for placement of central venous access devices
  • Catheter tip placement

Chapter 15: Assessment and Preparations for Central Venous Catheterization

  • Considerations for selection of the device
  • Preparations for central venous catheterization

Chapter 16: Vascular Access Device Management

  • Needleless Connectors
  • Filtration
  • Add-On Devices
  • CVAD Stabilization
  • Site Protection
  • Flushing and Locking
  • Assessment, Care, and Dressing Changes
  • Administration Set Changes
  • Blood Sampling from a CVAD

Chapter 17: Procedure Guides and Videos

  • Central venous catheter dressing change
  • Needleless access device change
  • Central venous catheter flushing
  • Blood Sampling from a CVAD

Chapter 18: Complications

  • Catheter related complications
  • Systemic complications
  • Insertion related complications

Chapter 19: Discontinuation of Therapy

  • Removal of devices
  • Central venous access device removal procedure

Chapter 20: Assessment and Documentation and Patient Education

  • Documentation of insertions, removal, infiltration or extravasations
  • Assessment, monitoring, documentation by type of therapy

Section 3: Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections (CRBSI)

This section of the Kentucky Nurse I.V. Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide education to licensed clinicians regarding the national efforts in effect to reduce the number of central venous access device related blood stream infections. The Joint Commission has addressed this issue in its 2010 National Patient Safety Goals by requiring education of all medical personnel who are involved in managing central lines, both in hospitals and long term care facilities. This education is expected to be completed on hire, annually thereafter, and when involvement in these procedures is added to an individual's job responsibilities.

Chapter 21: Scope of Problem

  • Morbidity / Mortality
  • Cost
  • Surveillance

Chapter 22: Catheter Insertion

  • Site Selection
  • Sterile Technique
  • Antimicrobial Impregnated Catheters 

Chapter 23: Catheter Site Maintenance

  • Dressing
  • Needleless Connector
  • Observation

Chapter 24: Medication Administration

  • Infusate
  • Administration Set
  • Flushing 

Chapter 25: Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Clinical Findings
  • Cultures
  • Treatment

Section 4: Total Parenteral Nutrition in the Adult Patient

This section of the Kentucky Nurse IV Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge to nurses and other healthcare providers interested in the provision of parenteral nutrition therapy. The understanding and use of TPN has evolved since its entry into mainstream healthcare several decades ago. 

Chapter 26: Indications for Parenteral Nutrition

  • Altered Absorption Capacity
  • GI Disorders Requiring Complete Bowel Rest
  • Intractable Vomiting or Diarrhea
  • Hypermetabolic States
  • Anorexia Nervosa

Chapter 27: Goals

  • Maintenance of Normal Body Weight and Protein Status
  • Restoration of Normal Body Weight and Protein Status
  • Maintenance or Restoration of Normal Micronutritional Status

Chapter 28: Normal Nutritional Requirements

  • Protein
  • Carbohydrate
  • Lipid
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Trace elements

Chapter 29: Nutritional Assessment

  • Anthropometrics
  • Biochemical
  • Clinical
  • Dietary

Chapter 30: Composition of Parenteral Nutrition

  • Dextrose
  • Amino Acids
  • Lipids
  • Water
  • Electrolytes
  • Vitamins
  • Trace Elements
  • Other Additives

Chapter 31: Administration

  • Central Venous Access Devices
  • Electronic Infusion Devices
  • TPN and Lipids
  • Preparing the TPN for Infusion
  • Initiating the Infusion

Chapter 32: Complications

  • Metabolic Complications
  • Vascular Access Device-Related Complications

Chapter 33: Monitoring and Documentation

  • Vital Signs
  • Glucose
  • Weight
  • Intake and Output
  • Laboratory Values
  • TPN Administration
  • IV Catheter Care

Section 5: Transfusion Therapy

This section of the Kentucky Nurse IV Therapy Education curriculum has been written to provide clinicians caring for the adult patient receiving transfusion therapy. There are various blood components infused for very specific purposes, and each component requires knowledge related to that specific product. This specialized type of therapy requires advanced clinical knowledge beyond that required for the provision of general infusion therapy. Therefore, education related specifically to the administration of blood products is crucial to the safe and effective use of these components. This course will provide information necessary for administering these life saving infusions.

Chapter 34: Introduction to Transfusion Therapy

  • Blood Components
  • ABO Blood Group System
  • Rh Blood Group System
  • Other Blood Group Antigens
  • HLA System

Chapter 35: Whole Blood

  • Description
  • Indications

Chapter 36: Packed Red Blood Cells

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing
  • Red Blood Cell Subsets

Chapter 37: Platelets

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing
  • Platelet Subsets

Chapter 38: Plasma

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing

Chapter 39: Granulocytes

  • Description
  • Indications
  • Donation and Testing

Chapter 40: Clotting Factors

  • Cryoprecipitate
  • Factor Concentrates

Chapter 41: Pre-transfusion Activities

  • Licensed Independent Prescriber Order
  • Patient Consent
  • Type and Crossmatch
  • Vascular Access
  • Baseline Vital Signs

Chapter 42: Transfusion Administration

  • Component Transport and Storage
  • Equipment
  • Pre-medication
  • Identification
  • Administration
  • Monitoring
  • Patient Education
  • Documentation

Chapter 43: Complications

  • Immune Complications
  • Hemolytic Reactions
  • Non-Hemolytic Reactions
  • Non-immune Complications
  • Infectious Complications
  • Transfusion Associated Fluid Overload (TACO)
  • Complications of Massive Transfusion

Section 6: IV Push Medications

This section of the Kentucky IV Therapy curriculum has been written to provide current conceptual and operational knowledge to the licensed clinician interested in the provision of intravenous medication by the IV push route. There are a number of drugs that may or must be administered by this method. For both the RN and LPN/LVN involved in administering drugs by this route, this course contains current practices for best patient outcomes.

Chapter 44: Introduction to IV Push Medications 
  • Definition 
  • Indications
Chapter 45: IV Push Drugs 
  • Classes
  • Medications
Chapter 46: IV Push Medication Administration 

Chapter 47: Assessment, Education, and Documentation 
  • Assessment 
  • Patient education
  • Documentation
Section 7: IV Antibiotics

This section of the course has been designed for nurses administering and/or caring for the patient receiving intravenous antibiotics. I.V. antibiotics have been administered for nearly a century but bacterial resistance has forced an ever-increasing arsenal of drugs. In this often- changing landscape, the nurse needs a working knowledge and competency to infuse these medications in all the various administration systems in use today. Antimicrobial stewardship is discussed and reviewed.

Chapter 48: Antibiotics
  • Antibiotic Resistance
  • Intravenous antibiotic administration systems
  • Clostridium Difficile
Chapter 49: Antibiotic Stewardship
  • New antibiotic initiative
  • Phage therapy
  • Supplements
Chapter 50: Resources and Skills Checklist
  • Skill Competency Checklists:
    • Peripheral IV Insertion
    • Medication Administration
    • Large Volume Electronic Infusion Device Peripheral IV Catheter Insertion
    • IV Push
    • Accessing a Port
    • Administration of Infusate via an Ambulatory Infusion Pump
    • Blood specimen collection from a CVAD
    • Deaccessing an Implanted Port
    • IV Push
    • Large Volume Electronic Infusion Device
    • Medication Administration
    • Midline or Central Line Dressing Change
    • Needleless Connector Device Change
  • References

 

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